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Diabetes Information

-Diabetes Facts
-History of Diabetes
-Causes of Diabetes
-Diabetes Complications
-Diabetes Education
-Diabetes Research

Diabetes Mellitus

-Diabetes Mellitus Symptoms
-Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
-Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes
-Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms
-Type 1 Diabetes Diet
-Type 1 Diabetes Cure

Type 2 Diabetes
-Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
-Type 2 Diabetes Causes
-Type 2 Diabetes Diet
-Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
-Type 2 Diabetes Medications

Gestational Diabetes
-Gestational Diabetes Test
-Gestational Diabetes Symptoms
-Gestational Diabetes Diet Plan
-Gestational Diabetes Treatment

Juvenile Diabetes
-Juvenile Diabetes Symptoms
-Juvenile Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus
-Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
-Treatment for Diabetes Insipidus

Feline Diabetes

Diabetes Symptoms
Signs of Diabetes 
Also: Diabetes Sign Symptoms 
-Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
Also: Type II Diabetes Symptoms
-Gestational Diabetes Symptoms
-Symptoms, Juvenile Diabetes
Also: Diabetes Symptoms in Child

(see also Blood Glucose)
-Glucose Level
Also: Blood Glucose Level
-Glucose Meter
Also: Blood Glucose Meter
-Glucose Monitor
Also: Blood Glucose Monitor
-Glucose Test
Also: Glucose Tolerance Test
-Glucose Intolerance

Diabetes Diet
-Diabetes Food
-Diabetes Nutrition
-Diabetes Diet Plan
-Type 2 Diabetes Diet

Diabetes Supply
-Diabetes Testing Supply

Diabetes Treatment
-Diabetes Medications
-Alternative Treatment for Diabetes

-Insulin Resistance
-Insulin Pump
-Lantus Insulin

Diabetes Care
-Diabetes Management
-Diabetes Associations
-Diabetes Prevention
-Diabetes Cure

Diabetes is the No. 6 leading causes of deaths in the United States, according to 2001 data  from the United States National Center for Health Statistics.

Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Type 2 diabetes is caused by a complicated interplay of genes, environment, insulin abnormalities, increased glucose production in the liver, increased fat breakdown, and possibly defective hormonal secretions in the intestine. The recent dramatic increase indicates that lifestyle factors (obesity and sedentary lifestyle) may be particularly important in triggering the genetic elements that cause this type of diabetes.

Insulin Abnormalities

The characteristic features of most patients with type 2 diabetes are the following:

  • Insulin resistance in muscle cells.
  • Normal or even excessive levels of insulin (to compensate for this resistance), eventually followed by a drop in insulin production.

In addition, researchers are trying to determine why the following events occur:

  • Elevated levels of free fatty acids and the hormones resistin and leptin have been associated with insulin resistance at different phases. Such factors are also present in obesity. It is not known yet if elevated levels are simply a product of obesity or play some causal role in diabetes.
  • Some researchers suggest that proteins called calpains may play an important role in both insulin secretion and insulin action.
  • Elevated growth hormone during puberty appears to increase the risk for insulin resistance in overweight adolescents.
  • Some experts theorize that abnormal regulation of certain important peptides (amylin and CGRP) may occur, thus affecting both the nervous and circulatory systems. One effect is to alter blood flow, which may contribute to insulin resistance. How each of these factors contributes to type 2 diabetes is under investigation.
  • One 2001 study found high levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in people with diabetes. Both of these substances are markers for inflammation and damage caused by an overactive immune response. Some researchers believe such inflammation may contribute to the disease process leading to diabetes.

Genetic Factors

Genetic factors play an important role in type 2 diabetes, but the pattern is complicated, since both impairment of beta cell function and an abnormal response to insulin are involved. Researchers have identified a number of genetic suspects:

  • Researchers have identified genes responsible for maturity-onset diabetes in youth (MODY), a rare genetic form of type 2 diabetes that develops only in Caucasian teenagers. (This is not the diabetes associated with obesity that is now being seen increasingly in young people.)
  • Some research is now investigating genes that may be responsible for inherited cases of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Caucasians.
  • A defective fatty-acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene may result in higher levels of unhealthy fat molecules (particularly triglycerides), which may be critical in the link between obesity and insulin resistance in some people with diabetes type 2.
  • A defective lipoprotein lipase (LpL) gene may pose a risk for coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes in people who have it.
  • Variations in a gene that regulates a protein called calpain-10 is proving to affect insulin secretion and action and may play a role in diabetes type 2. There is some disagreement, however, about its significance.
  • Defective genes that regulate a molecule called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma may contribute to both type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure in some patients.
  • A defective gene has been detected that reduces activity of a protective substance called beta3-adrenergic receptor, which is found in visceral fat cells (those occurring around the abdominal region). The result is a slow-down in metabolism and an increase in obesity. The defective gene has been found in Pima Indians and other populations with a very high incidence of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

The Thrifty Gene. One theory suggests that some cases of type 2 diabetes and obesity are derived from normal genetic actions that were once important for survival. Some experts postulate the existence of a so-called "thrifty" gene, which regulates hormonal fluctuations to accommodate seasonal changes. In certain nomadic populations, hormones are released during seasons when food supplies have traditionally been low, which results in resistance to insulin and efficient fat storage. The process is reversed in seasons when food is readily available. Because modern industrialization has made high-carbohydrate and fatty foods available all year long, the gene no longer serves a useful function and is now harmful because fat, originally stored for famine situations, is not used up. Such a theory could help explain the high incidence of type 2 diabetes and obesity found in Pima tribes and other Native American tribes with nomadic histories and Western dietary habits.

(From www.well-connected.com)

See also

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes
Juvenile Diabetes
Diabetes Insipidus
Feline Diabetes


This diabetes health education project is supported by Chong's Health Care at http://www.cljhealth.com, one of the leading companies in the discovery of alternative medicines for diabetes

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