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Diabetes Information

-Diabetes Facts
-History of Diabetes
-Causes of Diabetes
-Diabetes Complications
-Diabetes Education
-Diabetes Research

Diabetes Mellitus

-Diabetes Mellitus Symptoms
-Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
-Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes
-Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms
-Type 1 Diabetes Diet
-Type 1 Diabetes Cure

Type 2 Diabetes
-Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
-Type 2 Diabetes Causes
-Type 2 Diabetes Diet
-Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
-Type 2 Diabetes Medications

Gestational Diabetes
-Gestational Diabetes Test
-Gestational Diabetes Symptoms
-Gestational Diabetes Diet Plan
-Gestational Diabetes Treatment

Juvenile Diabetes
-Juvenile Diabetes Symptoms
-Juvenile Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus
-Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
-Treatment for Diabetes Insipidus

Feline Diabetes

Diabetes Symptoms
Signs of Diabetes 
Also: Diabetes Sign Symptoms 
-Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
Also: Type II Diabetes Symptoms
-Gestational Diabetes Symptoms
-Symptoms, Juvenile Diabetes
Also: Diabetes Symptoms in Child

(see also Blood Glucose)
-Glucose Level
Also: Blood Glucose Level
-Glucose Meter
Also: Blood Glucose Meter
-Glucose Monitor
Also: Blood Glucose Monitor
-Glucose Test
Also: Glucose Tolerance Test
-Glucose Intolerance

Diabetes Diet
-Diabetes Food
-Diabetes Nutrition
-Diabetes Diet Plan
-Type 2 Diabetes Diet

Diabetes Supply
-Diabetes Testing Supply

Diabetes Treatment
-Diabetes Medications
-Alternative Treatment for Diabetes

-Insulin Resistance
-Insulin Pump
-Lantus Insulin

Diabetes Care
-Diabetes Management
-Diabetes Associations
-Diabetes Prevention
-Diabetes Cure

Diabetes is the No. 6 leading causes of deaths in the United States, according to 2001 data  from the United States National Center for Health Statistics.

Diabetes Insipidus


Diabetes insipidus is caused by the inability of the kidneys to conserve water, which leads to frequent urination and pronounced thirst.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water as they perform their function of filtering blood. The amount of water conserved is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also called vasopressin).

ADH is a hormone produced in a region of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain.

diabetes insipidus caused by a lack of ADH is called central diabetes insipidus. When diabetes insipidus is caused by failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH, the condition is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The major symptoms of diabetes insipidus are excessive urination and extreme thirst. The sensation of thirst stimulates patients to drink large amounts of water to compensate for water lost in the urine.

Central diabetes insipidus is caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a result of surgery, infection, tumor, or head injury. Although rare, central diabetes insipidus is more common than nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus involves a defect in the parts of the kidneys that reabsorb water back into the bloodstream. It occurs less often than central diabetes insipidus. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may occur as an inherited disorder in which male children receive the abnormal gene that causes the disease on the X chromosome from their mothers.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may also be caused by diseases of the kidney (for example, polycystic kidney disease) and the effects of certain drugs (for example, lithium, amphotericin B, demeclocycline).

If thirst mechanisms are normal and adequate fluids are consumed, there are no significant effects on body fluid or salt balance. If inadequate fluids are consumed, the large amount of water lost in the urine may cause dehydration and high sodium levels in the blood.


  • Excessive thirst
    • May be intense or uncontrollable
    • May involve a craving for ice water
  • Excessive urine volume

Signs and tests

  • Urinalysis
  • Urine output:
    • Central diabetes insipidus: urine output suppressed by a dose of ADH
    • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: urine output not suppressed by a dose of ADH
  • MRI of the head


The cause of the underlying condition should be treated when possible.

Central diabetes insipidus may be controlled with vasopressin (desmopressin, DDAVP). Vasopressin is administered as either a nasal spray or tablets.

Vasopressin is ineffective for patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In most cases, if nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by medication (for example, lithium), stopping the medication leads to recovery of normal kidney function.

Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is treated with fluid intake to match urine output and drugs that lower urine output. Drugs used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus include the anti-inflammatory medication indomethacin and the diuretics hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and amiloride.

Expectations (prognosis)

The outcome depends on the underlying disorder. If treated, diabetes insipidus does not cause severe problems or reduce life expectancy.


Inadequate fluid consumption can result in the following complications:

  • Dehydration
    • Dry skin
    • Dry mucous membranes
    • Sunken appearance to eyes
    • Sunken fontanelles (soft spot) in infants
    • Fever
    • Rapid heart rate
    • Weight loss
  • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Fatigue, lethargy
    • Headache
    • Irritability
    • Muscle pains

Calling your health care provider

Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms that indicate diabetes insipidus.

If you have diabetes insipidus, contact your health care provider if frequent urination or extreme thirst return.

(From the National Institute of Health)

See also

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes
Juvenile Diabetes
Diabetes Insipidus
Feline Diabetes


This diabetes health education project is supported by Chong's Health Care at http://www.cljhealth.com, one of the leading companies in the discovery of alternative medicines for diabetes

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