-History of Diabetes
-Causes of Diabetes
-Diabetes Mellitus Symptoms
-Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
-Diabetes Mellitus Treatment
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
-Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms
-Type 1 Diabetes Diet
-Type 1 Diabetes Cure
Type 2 Diabetes
-Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
-Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
-Type 2 Diabetes Causes
-Type 2 Diabetes Diet
-Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
-Type 2 Diabetes Medications
-Gestational Diabetes Test
-Gestational Diabetes Symptoms
-Gestational Diabetes Diet Plan
-Gestational Diabetes Treatment
-Juvenile Diabetes Symptoms
-Juvenile Diabetes Treatment
-Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
-Treatment for Diabetes Insipidus
-Signs of Diabetes
Also: Diabetes Sign Symptoms
-Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
Also: Type II Diabetes Symptoms
-Gestational Diabetes Symptoms
-Symptoms, Juvenile Diabetes
Also: Diabetes Symptoms in Child
(see also Blood Glucose)
Also: Blood Glucose Level
Also: Blood Glucose Meter
Also: Blood Glucose Monitor
Also: Glucose Tolerance Test
-Diabetes Diet Plan
-Type 2 Diabetes Diet
-Diabetes Testing Supply
-Alternative Treatment for Diabetes
is the No. 6 leading causes of deaths in the United States, according to 2001
data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics.
Diabetes Food and Meal Planning
Because food intake affects the body's need for insulin and insulin's ability to
lower blood sugar, diet is the cornerstone of diabetes treatment. Today,
diabetes experts no longer recommend a single meal plan for all people with
diabetes. Instead, they recommend meal plans that are flexible and take into
account a person's lifestyle and particular health needs. The American Diabetes
Association recommends that people with diabetes consult a registered dietician
to design a meal plan.
Food and Meal Planning
Selecting Foods for a Healthy Meal Plan
By following the government's Dietary Guidelines for Americans, you can promote
your health and reduce your risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease,
certain types of cancer, diabetes, stroke, and osteoporosis. These diseases are
leading causes of death and disability among Americans. Good diets can also
reduce major risk factors for chronic disease-such as obesity, high blood
pressure, and high blood cholesterol. Your food choices, your lifestyle, your
environment, and your family history all affect your well-being. It is important
for everyone to follow the 10 Dietary Guidelines listed below. If you are at
higher risk of having a chronic disease, it is especially important.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include the following:
AIM FOR FITNESS . . .
--Aim for a healthy weight.
--Be physically active each day.
BUILD A HEALTHY BASE . . .
--Let the Pyramid guide your food choices.
--Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains.
--Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily.
--Keep food safe to eat.
CHOOSE SENSIBLY . . .
--Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in
--Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars.
--Choose and prepare foods with less salt.
--If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.
Some people with diabetes use the Exchange Lists for Meal Planning. This system,
established by the American Dietetic and American Diabetes associations,
separates foods into six categories based on their nutritional makeup. People
following this plan choose a set number of servings from each category daily,
depending on their nutritional needs.
The Food Guide Pyramid
The Food Guide Pyramid can help you put the Dietary Guidelines into action. The
pyramid illustrates the research-based food guidance developed by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and supported by the Department of Health and Human
Services. It is based on USDA's research on what foods Americans eat, what
nutrients are in these foods, and how to make the best food choices to promote
good health. It outlines what to eat each day, but it is not a rigid
prescription. You can use it as a general guide in choosing a healthful diet
that is right for you. The pyramid calls for eating a variety of foods to get
the nutrients you need, and, at the same time, the right amount of calories to
maintain a healthy weight.
Using the food label to help with food choices
Under regulations from the Food and Drug Administration of the Department of
Health and Human Services and the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, the food label offers more complete, useful and
accurate nutrition information than ever before.
With today's food labels, consumers get
--nutrition information about almost every food in the grocery store
--distinctive, easy-to-read formats that enable consumers to more quickly find the
information they need to make healthful food choices
--information on the amount per serving of saturated fat, cholesterol, dietary
fiber, and other nutrients of major health concern
--nutrient reference values, expressed as % Daily Values, that help consumers see
how a food fits into an overall daily diet
--uniform definitions for terms that describe a food's nutrient content--such as
"light," "low-fat," and "high-fiber"--to ensure that such terms mean the same
for any product on which they appear
--claims about the relationship between a nutrient or food and a disease or
health-related condition, such as calcium and osteoporosis, and fat and cancer.
These are helpful for people who are concerned about eating foods that may help
keep them healthier longer.
--standardized serving sizes that make nutritional comparisons of similar products
--declaration of total percentage of juice in juice drinks. This enables consumers
to know exactly how much juice is in a product.
Begin with the Nutrition Facts panel, usually on the side or back of the
package. The Nutrition Facts panel has two parts: The main or top section, which
contains product-specific information (serving size, calories, and nutrient
information) that varies with each food product; and the bottom part, which
contains a footnote. This footnote is only on larger packages and provides
general dietary information about important nutrients.
Several features of the Nutrition Panel help people with diabetes manage their
diets. First of all, serving sizes now are more uniform among similar products
and reflect the amounts people actually eat. The similarity makes it easier to
compare the nutritional qualities of related foods. People who use the Exchange
Lists should be aware that the serving size on the label may not be the same as
that in the Exchange Lists. For example, the label serving size for orange juice
is 8 fluid ounces (240 milliliters). In the exchange lists, the serving size is
4 ounces (one-half cup) or 120 mL. So, a person who drinks one cup of orange
juice has used two fruit exchanges.
The label also gives grams of total carbohydrate, protein and fat, which can be
used for carbohydrate counting. The values listed for total carbohydrates
include all carbohydrates, including dietary fiber and sugars listed below it.
Not singled out is complex carbohydrates, such as starches. The sugars include
naturally present sugars, such as lactose in milk and fructose in fruits, and
those added to the food, such as table sugar, corn syrup, and dextrose. The
listing of grams of protein also is helpful for those restricting their protein
intake, either to reduce their risk of kidney disease or to manage the kidney
disease they have developed.
Elsewhere on the label, consumers may find claims about the food's nutritional
benefits. These claims signal that the food contains desirable levels of certain
nutrients. Some claims, such as "low fat," "no saturated fat," and "high fiber,"
describe nutrient levels. Some of these are particularly interesting to people
with diabetes because they highlight foods containing nutrients at beneficial
Other claims, called health claims, show a relationship between a nutrient or
food and a disease or health condition. FDA has authorized a number of claims,
which are based on significant scientific agreement. Three claims that relate to
heart disease are of particular interest to people with diabetes:
--A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may help reduce the risk of coronary
--A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and grain products that contain fiber,
particularly soluble fiber, and are low in saturated fat and cholesterol may
help reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
--Soluble fiber from whole oats, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and
cholesterol, may help reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
Nutrient and health claims can be used only under certain circumstances, such as
when the food contains appropriate levels of the stated nutrients.
Overweight, Obesity, and Weight-Loss
More than 60 percent of U.S. adults are either overweight or obese, according to
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). While the number of
overweight people has been slowly climbing since the 1980s, the number of obese
adults has nearly doubled since then.
Excess weight and physical inactivity account for more than 300,000 premature
deaths each year in the United States, second only to deaths related to smoking,
says the CDC. People who are overweight or obese are more likely to develop
heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, gallbladder disease and
joint pain caused by excess uric acid (gout). Excess weight can also cause
interrupted breathing during sleep (sleep apnea) and wearing away of the joints
To address the public health epidemic of being overweight or obese, former
Surgeon General David Satcher issued a "call to action" in December 2001.
Satcher's report, The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease
Overweight and Obesity, outlined strategies that communities can use in helping
to address the problems. Those options included requiring physical education at
all school grades, providing more healthy food options on school campuses, and
providing safe and accessible recreational facilities for residents of all ages.
Congress defined the term "dietary supplement" in the Dietary Supplement Health
and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994. A dietary supplement is a product taken by
mouth that contains a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet. The
"dietary ingredients" in these products may include: vitamins, minerals, herbs
or other botanicals, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, organ tissues,
glandulars, and metabolites. Dietary supplements can also be extracts or
concentrates, and may be found in many forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels,
gelcaps, liquids, or powders. They can also be in other forms, such as a bar,
but if they are, information on their label must not represent the product as a
conventional food or a sole item of a meal or diet. Whatever their form may be,
DSHEA places dietary supplements in a special category under the general
umbrella of "foods," not drugs, and requires that every supplement be labeled a
In October 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was
signed into law by President Clinton. Before this time, dietary supplements were
subject to the same regulatory requirements as were other foods. This new law,
which amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, created a new regulatory
framework for the safety and labeling of dietary supplements.
Under DSHEA, a firm is responsible for determining that the dietary supplements
it manufactures or distributes are safe and that any representations or claims
made about them are substantiated by adequate evidence to show that they are not
false or misleading. This means that dietary supplements do not need approval
from FDA before they are marketed. Except in the case of a new dietary
ingredient, where pre-market review for safety data and other information is
required by law, a firm does not have to provide FDA with the evidence it relies
on to substantiate safety or effectiveness before or after it markets its
Also, manufacturers do not need to register themselves nor their dietary
supplement products with FDA before producing or selling them. Currently, there
are no FDA regulations that are specific to dietary supplements that establish a
minimum standard of practice for manufacturing dietary supplements. However, FDA
intends to issue regulations on good manufacturing practices that will focus on
practices that ensure the identity, purity, quality, strength and composition of
dietary supplements. At present, the manufacturer is responsible for
establishing its own manufacturing practice guidelines to ensure that the
dietary supplements it produces are safe and contain the ingredients listed on
People with diabetes should be sure to consult a doctor or pharmacist before
purchasing or taking any supplement. Many supplements contain active ingredients
that have strong biological effects and their safety is not always assured in
all users. Other supplements may interact with prescription and over-the-counter
medicines. By taking these products, you may be placing yourself at risk.
(From the Food and Drug Administration)
health education project is supported
by Chong's Health Care at http://www.cljhealth.com, one of the leading companies in the discovery of
medicines for diabetes.